As part of DISCE’s key objective to look at the creative workforce, skills and education across Europe we have mapped current research on the creative and cultural workforce (CCW) across European countries as outlined in our two reports: Creative Higher Education in Europe Statistics Report & Creative Workforce in Europe Report.
In the profiles below we have included information on the cultural/creative workforce in every member state of the EU, including the UK. Each profile includes the statistical mapping of the cultural workforce within that nation as monitored by the EU Labour Force Survey, alongside the definitional framework of monitoring cultural/creative employment within each member state, with relevant links to national statistical data sources.
In order to capture the range of organisations (from national policy bodies to grassroot groups) that are engaged with research on creative and cultural work we have launched a Europe-wide survey ‘Who Cares about Creative and Cultural Workers in Europe’. We invite any organisation involved in this area of work to complete the survey (the survey will close on the 3rd of July 2020). As a result we will develop a database, that will be available on the DISCE website in July 2020, which shall be regularly updated to include all the organisations involved in this area of work.
Note on sources and data: We built these countries’ profile below using a range of European databases and broader national desktop research. All Cultural Employment data are Eurostat data, demographic and employment characteristic data can be found in the Eurostat database. All data on Public spend on culture are sources from the Eurostat Classification of the functions of government (COFOG). We also found the work and information of Compendium of Cultural Policies & Trends very useful to develop the countries’ profiles.
Cultural Employment: Eurostat data, in 2018 there were 180.300 people employed as cultural workers in Austria, representing 4.2% of the total employed population.
National mapping of the CCW: In Austria the mapping of CCW is done by the national-statistical agency is called Statistics Austria (‘Statistik Austria’). The definitions used are modelled on Eurostat approach and definition. The analysis include publications on employment and industries as well as a Cultural Statistic (2017) report with data including cultural sectors, cultural education, cultural funding, cultural economy and cultural participation. Furthermore, the ‘Österreichische Kulturdokumentation Internationales Archiv für Kulturanalysen‘ (Austrian cultural documentation International archive for cultural analysis) acts as an independent research institute specialized in applied cultural research and cultural documentation, including a study on the social situation of artists and those working in art and/or cultural mediation in Austria, 2018 commissioned by the Austrian Federal Chancellery and other reports.
Austria Cultural Policy: Arts, culture and heritage are integrated into the Federal Chancellery (Bundeskanzleramt BKA) within the Division II for Arts and Culture. Including departments like: music and performing arts, art schools, general art matters; film; literature and publishing, libraries; visual arts, architecture, design, fashion, photography, video and media arts; Investment in management of federal theatres, legal matters; Investment in management of federal museums and other entities. However, the Creative Industries are also connected with the Ministry for Digital and Economic Affairs (Bundesministerium für Digitalisierung und Wirtschaftsstandort, BMDW). Furthermore, Kreativwirtschaft Austria (KAT) a division of the Austrian Chamber of Labour works to support Austrian creative industries.
Public spend on culture: In 2018, the Austrian government spent 1.2% of GDP on recreation, culture and religion (Eurostat, COFOG).
Cultural Employment: According to the Eurostat data in 2018 there were 204.6 thousand people employed as cultural workers across Belgium, representing 4.3% of the total employed population.
National mapping of the CCW: Where the EU monitoring of creative and cultural industrial activity is gathered across the entire population, national data is divided across the three autonomous regions that make up the federal state. The Flanders government has responsibility for the Flemish speaking community, which is the majority population within Belgium. The French speaking community is governed by the Wallonia-Brussels Federation (FMB) and the German speaking community have its own parliament and government based in Eupen. Information on the creative and cultural workforce is managed by the Department for Culture, Youth and Media (Flanders) and the General Administration of Culture (FMB). This report produced by the Free University of Brussels (ULB) provides information on the classification system for creative/cultural occupation and industrial data in the FMB.
Belgium Cultural Policy: As stated, Belgium is a federal country and each region is responsible for culture and education for its relevant community. However, certain aspects of cultural policy fall under the federal government including labour law, taxation and intellectual property rights https://www.federal-government.be/en. Although the federal government do not directly manage cultural/creative policy with the three federal states, various cultural institutions, largely located in Brussels, fall under federal competence including the Royal Opera of La Monnaie, Bozar, the Royal Museums of Art and History, the Royal Museums of Fine Arts, the Royal Library of Belgium, the National Orchestra of Belgium, and the Royal Museum of Central Africa.
Public spend on culture (COFOG): In 2018 Belgium spent 1.3% of GDP on recreation, culture and religion (Eurostat: COFOG).
Cultural Employment: According to the Eurostat data, in 2018 there were 84.800 people employed as cultural workers in Bulgaria, representing 2.7% of the total employed population.
National mapping of the CCW: The Observatory of Cultural Economics (OCE) is a non-governmental organization, founded in 2008 that acts are the official Bulgarian think tank for cultural and economics mappings and statistics. The definition it uses match the Eurostat work. Most of the work and mapping concentrate on the capital Sofia (UNESCO City of Film). Also Invest Sofia has recently published a report on the Creative Industries profile in the Bulgarian capital.
Bulgaria Cultural Policy: According to Compendium of Cultural Policies & Trends national cultural policy in Bulgaria is headed by the Ministry of Culture. The structure includes the following departments: Cultural Heritage, Museums and Fine Arts; Legal Services and Public Procurement; European Programs and Projects; International and Regional Activities; Performing Arts and Art Education; Copyright and Neighbouring Rights. There are two further institutions with autonomous legal status, the Executive Agency National Film Centre and the National Institute of Monuments of Culture.
Public spend on culture: In 2018, the Bulgaria government spent 0.8% of GDP on recreation, culture and religion (Eurostat, COFOG).
Cultural Employment: According to the Eurostat data, in 2018 there were 54.200 people employed as cultural workers in Croatia, representing 3.3% of the total employed population.
National mapping of the CCW: The Croatian Bureau of Statistics offers a relatively extensive statistical database in English which include statistics for culture provision and participation (although not specifically under the heading for CCW or employment. Croatian cluster of competitiveness of creative and cultural industries HKKKKI created a mapping document of CCIs in 2015 available in Croatian. While the Croatia’ Institute for Development and International Relations (IRMO) published in 2014 a report on Access to Culture. Policy Analysis.
Croatia Cultural Policy: As reported by Compendium of Cultural Policies & Trends cultural policy decisions in Croatia happen through the interactions between the Ministry of Culture, the government and the Parliament, on the one hand, and consultative cultural councils (as well as cultural institutions) on the other. The following cultural councils are established since 2011: film and cinematography, music and performing arts, theatre arts, visual arts, books and publishing, the new media culture and the council for international relations and European integration. From 2011, the cultural council on film and cinematography was re-branded as Croatian Audiovisual Centre (HAVC) that published a facts & figures publication for the sector in 2016.
Public spend on culture: In 2018, the Croatia government spent 1.5% of GDP on recreation, culture and religion (Eurostat, COFOG).
Cultural Employment: According to the Eurostat data, in 2018 there were 13.800 people employed as cultural workers in Cyprus, representing 3.5% of the total employed population.
National mapping of the CCW: The Ministry of Education and Culture regularly provides annual reports on its activities. Reports are currently available for years 2004-2018. See the full list here: http://www.moec.gov.cy/en/annual_reports.html. However, within the mapping and measures there is no specific focus on capturing employment in the relevant sector.
Cyprus Cultural Policy: Cyprus has one main national organisation that oversees cultural and creative activities, which is the Ministry of Education and Culture. Within the Ministry, as reported by of Compendium of Cultural Policies & Trends the Cultural Services Department works on implementing contemporary cultural policy across a range of fields including Literature, Books, Music, Visual Arts, Theatre, Dance, Cinema, Folk Culture, Museums, and Cultural Centres abroad.
Public spend on culture: In 2018, the Cyprus government spent 0.8% of GDP on recreation, culture and religion (Eurostat, COFOG).
Cultural Employment: According to the Eurostat data, in 2018 there were 197.500 people employed as cultural workers in Czechia, representing 3.7% of the total employed population.
National mapping of the CCW: The main government body overseeing cultural and creative activities in the Czech Republic is The Ministry of Culture . The Ministry of Culture collaborated with the Arts and Theatre Institute and produced a document titled ‘Mapping Cultural and Creative Industries in the Czech Republic (2011-2015)’, which provides a very clear definition of the Cultural and Creative Sectors in Czech Republic. The Czech Statistical Office (CSO) collects information on culture, especially within the Statistical Yearbook of the Czech Republic – 2019 including information on CCW in Czech only. The National Information and Consulting Centre for Culture (NIPOS) also publish extensive statistics on culture (including employment in the public cultural sector)
Czechia Cultural Policy: Cultural policy in Czechia is managed by their Ministry of Culture. Its remit includes: art; cultural and educational activity; cultural monuments; matters relating to churches and religious societies; matters relating to the press, including publication of the non-periodical press and other information means; the preparation of draft laws and other legal regulations in the area of radio and television broadcasting; implementation of the Copyright Act; and production and trade in the area of culture. Cultural and Creative Industries (CCI) have been discussed and supported by State Cultural Policy for 2015-2020 the main document new Concept of Support for the Arts.
Public spend on culture: In 2018, the Czechia government spent 1.5% of GDP on recreation, culture and religion (Eurostat, COFOG).
Cultural Employment: According to the Eurostat data, in 2018 there were 121.300 people employed as cultural workers in Denmark, representing 4.2% of the total employed population.
National mapping of the CCW: Statistics Denmark provides a substantial amount of information related to CCW. However, do not offer specific definitions, but use rather general terms such as ‘cultural activities’ and ‘cultural area’. Each area has several sub-sections with detailed information. The Ministry of Culture in Denmark authored in 2000 ‘Denmark’s Creative Potential – Culture and Business Policy Report’ . Similarly, the Nordic Council of Ministers in 2015 promoted the document ‘Mapping of Nordic Creative and Cultural Industries: Financial Environment’.
Danish Cultural Policy: The Danish Ministry of Culture is responsible for initiatives involving support to creative arts, cultural heritage, archives, libraries, museums and higher education in the areas of art, music, film, theatre and dancing. The ministry is also responsible for copyright, broadcasting, sport and international cultural cooperation. As highlighted by Compendium of Cultural Policies & Trends the work of the ministry is undertaken in collaboration with a range of advisory bodies in the different area of expertise, including agencies, councils and foundations. For example, arts funding are distributed by the Danish Arts Foundation (Statens Kunstfond) and the Danish Arts Council (Statens Kunstråd)
Public spend on culture: In 2018, the Danish government spent 1.6% of GDP on recreation, culture and religion (Eurostat, COFOG).
Cultural Employment: According to the Eurostat data, in 2018 there were 37.200 people employed as cultural workers in Estonia, representing 5.6% of the total employed population.
National mapping of the CCW: The Ministry also provides clear definitions of the creative economy, cultural industries and creative industries. The Ministry highlights that to date, the Estonian creative economy sector has been mapped by the Estonian Institute of Economic Research on four occasions. The latest data, collected in 2018, and the data collected in 2015-16 indicate the following: The revenue of the creative economy sector totals €1,481 million (2.9% of GDP); The creative economy sector employs 30,681 people (4.8% of those employed) 9,098 companies and institutions (11.6% of the total) are active in the creative economy sector or “culture and creative industries”. Some research was conducted the Ministry in 2011 with support from the British Council across Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania: ‘Creative Industries in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania’ Republic of Estonia Ministry of Culture, 2011 . Further statistics on culture more broadly are also provided by Statistics Estonia
Estonian Cultural Policy: As highlighted also by Compendium of Cultural Policies & Trends the Ministry of Culture is responsible for cultural policy in Estonia, including the organisation of national cultural, athletic, sports and heritage activities and the advancement of arts; participation in the planning of national media activities; supervising the enforcement of copyright legislation; coordinating policies for cultural diversity. Apart from the Ministry of Culture, the main institution distributing state money for culture is the Cultural Endowment of Estonia. The Endowment receives a fixed share of alcohol, tobacco, and gambling duties and uses them for the benefit of culture and sports. It is divided between departments for Architecture, Film, Fine Arts, Theatre, Music, Literature, Folk Art, Sports, and Inter-disciplinary Culture.
Public spend on culture: In 2018, the Estonian government spent 2% of GDP on recreation, culture and religion (Eurostat, COFOG).
Cultural Employment: According to the Eurostat data in 2018 125.7 thousand persons were employed in the cultural sector representing 4.9% of Finland’s employed population.
National mapping of the CCW: National data is collated by Statistics Finland. Employment in Finland’s creative and cultural sector is classified and monitored following the European Commission’s (EC) ESS-net (2012) framework for measuring creative and cultural employment and, like the EC, Finland adopt the term ‘cultural employment’ to classify all occupations that in other national contexts are divided across ‘creative’ and ‘cultural’ standard industrial classification system. However, Finland’s occupational scheme has not included updates in the ESS-net system since 2012, which could account for variances between figures. Statistics FInland provide annual reports on employment within cultural occupations. There are a number of organisations including the Center for cultural policy research (Cupore) and the Arts Promotion Centre Finland (Taike) who also monitor and provide data on creative/cultural workers in Finland.
Finnish Cultural Policy: Responsibility for Finland’s cultural policy rests with the Ministry of Education and Culture. There are a number of Government supported Arts councils’ responsible for implementing arts and artists’ policies and funding allocation across Finland including: Arts Promotion Centre Finland, the Finnish Heritage Agency the Finnish Film Foundation which allocates public support for film production and distribution. Furthermore, more specific expert and national policy implementation functions are carried out by bodies such as the National Art Gallery, National Audiovisual Institute, Library for the Visually Impaired (CELIA), and the Administration of the Fortress of Suomenlinna (a UNESCO World Heritage Site).
Public spend on culture (COFOG): In 2018, the Finnish government spent 1.5% of GDP on recreation, culture and religion (Eurostat, COFOG).
Cultural Employment: According to the Eurostat data, in 2018 there were 965.7 thousand people employed as cultural workers in France representing 3.6% of the total employed population.
National mapping of the CCW: The Department of Foresight Studies and Statistics (Département des Etudes de la Prospective et des Statistiques, DEPS) provides labour market intelligence on the cultural workforce for the French Ministry of Culture. France adopted the EU’s reclassification of cultural industrial and occupational coding that took place during 2009-2011 task force and currently apply the 2012 ESS-net framework to define both creative and cultural activity across ten cultural areas and six economic functions. The DEPS defines cultural activities as any activity that defends cultural value and/or any artistic expression, whether it is commercial or non-commercial and undertaken by any type of structure (individuals, companies, groups, organizations, amateurs, or professionals). The DEPS also describes cultural employment as employment with a main activity defined as cultural, and cultural enterprises as those that have a main cultural activity (). Further information on the classification of cultural statistics in France can be found on the Ministry’s website alongside information on employment occupations within the cultural sector.
French Cultural Policy: Central cultural policy in France falls under the Ministry of Culture which is comprised of a central administration, the General Secretariat alongside three directorates: the General Directorate of Heritage, the General Directorate of Media and Cultural Industries and the General Directorate of Artistic Creation. There are also two related central departments including the Media and Cultural Industries Branch and the Delegation to the French language and the languages of France. As a decentralised state, France has a number of different autonomous territorial authorities that have their own directly elected assemblies and governments (Dracs) which each have their own cultural administrations. The Ministry funds a number of public organisations linked to cultural activity (access link here).
Public spend on culture: In 2018, the French government spent 1.4% of GDP on recreation, culture and religion (Eurostat, COFOG).
Cultural Employment: According to the Eurostat data, in 2018 there were 1661.3 thousand people employed as cultural workers in Germany representing 4% of the total employed population.
National mapping of the CCW: The German Federal Government set up the Committee for Cultural and Media Affairs in 1998 to act as a supervisory body for the work of the Federal Government Commissioner for Cultural and Media Affairs (BKM) however the first governmental report defining the cultural and creative industries at length and analysing the economic sector in Germany in detail was published in February 2009 . It was published by the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology renamed in 2013 as the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy which is, adjacent to the Cultural and Media Affairs. Germany applied a coding system to define creative and cultural industrial/occupational activity following the UK model. Germany uses a codified system to classify businesses according to the type of economic activity they are engaged in, this is called Wirtschaftsklassifikation or ‘WZ’ coding. Thus Germany defines the cultural and creative industries as enterprises which are economically predominantly oriented towards and deal with the creation, production, distribution and / or media distribution of cultural / creative goods and services, as stated in their report.
Germany identifies 11 sectors as part of the CCIs and divides creative/cultural employment between ‘core workers’ and ‘people in marginal employment and marginal self-employment’ .
German Cultural Policy: Germany is a federal state with three tiers of government; the Federal Government (Bund; i.e. national authorities, Parliament etc), the federal states (Bundesländer / Länder) and the municipalities (Kommunen; cities, towns, counties). Each are largely free to shape cultural policy as they see fit.
Public spend on culture: In 2018, the German government spent 1.1% of GDP on recreation, culture and religion (Eurostat, COFOG).
Cultural Employment: According to the Eurostat data, in 2018 there were 128.7 thousand people employed as cultural workers in Greece representing 3.4% of the total employed population.
National mapping of the CCW: The main organisation in charge of statistics in Greece is the Hellenic Statistical Authority (ELSTAT) however, no official statistics which focused particularly on work/ employment in the cultural sector could be found on the Hellenic Statistical Authority’s website. What could be retrieved focused on cultural activities, participation and attendance. In 2017, the Hellenic Ministry of Culture and Sports published the study ‘Mapping Cultural and Creative Industries in Greece’ carried out by the Regional Development Institute of Panteion University, for the period 2008-2014. The report provides a definition of ‘cultural and creative industries’ (CCIs) as ‘any enterprise producing marketable goods of high aesthetic or symbolic nature, the use of which aims at stimulating consumers’ reactions stemming from this experience. The end good or service comprises an intellectual property and a product subject to the legislation on the protection of intellectual property rights.’.
Greek Cultural Policy: The Hellenic Republic Ministry of Culture and Sports consists of four General Directorates: Antiquities and Cultural Heritage; Restoration, Museums and Technical Works; Contemporary Culture; and, Administrative Support (which includes the Directorates of European Union and of International Relations). The Ministry provides support for regional cultural development and the arts via a series of (arms-length) sector bodies. Organisations that are co-funded by the Ministry operate as agencies of local government, under its effective administrative control.Some regional theatre organisations, municipal cinemas, cultural centres and other similar organisations are co-funded by the Ministry of Culture, and operate under the long-term programme agreements between the municipalities and the Ministry. As a rule, such organisations operate as agencies of local government, under its effective administrative control. Following the financial crash of 2008, the financial bailout of the Greek economy by the European Union and severe austerity measures imposed on the nation, a register of independent arts organisations was created in order to document arts funding allocation. There is very little central government funding for the current Greek cultural infrastructure, with more available at the regional level which (after the abolition of the sectoral European Community Support Framework operational programme for culture) still benefits from EU funding that can be used for some culture-related initiatives. It was announced in 2017 that the Greek city, Elefsina would be one of the European Capitals of Culture in 2021.
Public spend on culture: In 2018, the Greek government spent 0.8% of its GDP on recreation, culture and religion (Eurostat, COFOG).
Cultural Employment: According to the Eurostat data in 2018 there were 150.1 thousand people employed as cultural workers in Hungary representing 3.4% of the total employed population.
National mapping of the CCW: Measurements relating to the creative economy in Hungary are overseen by the Ministry of Innovation and Technology. Hungary applies the Hungary Standard Classification of Occupations (HSCO-08), last revised in 2008. HSCO-08 closely builds on ISCO-08 with amendments made to account for idiosyncrasies of the Hungarian labour market. Hungary does not define CCI’s in any clear way however, the National Development and Territorial Development Concept (Nemzeti Fejlesztés 2030 – Országos Fejlesztési és Területfejlesztési Koncepcióról) formulates a number of sub-sectors broadly related to CCI’s. These include: Advertising & promotion, Artistic & antique market, Book publishing, Construction, Craftsmanship, Design & fashion design, Electronic & printed press, Film & video, Fine arts, Industrial arts, Music, Performing arts, Popular arts, and Software & digital game development.
Hungarian Cultural Policy: There is no one central government department that has an over-arching responsibility for creative and/or cultural policy in Hungary. The state secretary for culture sits within the larger Ministry of Human Resources but cultural institutions abroad are now supervised by the Minister for Foreign Economic Affairs. Film industry financing is managed by the Minister of Economic Development, and protection and regulation of built heritage and archaeology is shared between the Prime Minister’s Office and regional (county level) Government offices. In the Prime Minister’s Office, there is also a deputy state secretary for major cultural investments. In addition, the Hungarian Academy of Arts, Magyar Művészeti Akadémia (MMA) acts as a public body with increased responsibilities for facilitating, funding and education.
Public spend on culture (COFOG): Hungary has one of the highest proportionate public spend on culture in the EU spending 3.2% of its GDP spent on recreation, culture and religion in 2018 (Eurostat COFOG).
Cultural Employment: According to the Eurostat data, in 2018 there were 77.500 people employed as cultural workers in Italy representing 3.4% of the total employed population.
National mapping of the CCW: There is not a unique institution mapping or measuring creative industries workforce in Ireland. Assessment of the Economic Impacts of the Arts in Ireland was published in 2009 by the Arts Council including some quantitative information on the size of the creative sector in terms of value-added and employment. More recently, Future Jobs Ireland, the development of a Roadmap for the Creative Industries was identified as a key deliverable. Recently, Creative Ireland published a report on the CCW and careers in Irish film, TV drama and theatre.
Irish Cultural Policy: Irish Cultural Policy is mainly addressed by the Department of Arts, Heritage and the Gaeltacht (corresponding to an Arts Ministry) established in 2011, distinguishing activities of a new Department of Transport, Tourism and Sport. Key responsibilities of the Department are the the conservation, preservation, protection and presentation of Ireland’s heritage and cultural assets as well as the Irish language and the Gaeltacht (or Irish-speaking areas). In specific: 1) Arts, Culture, Film and Music, and Ireland’s cultural institutions; 2) Ireland’s Built and Natural Heritage; 3) The Irish language, the Gaeltacht and the Islands; and 4) North / South Co-operation. Furthermore, the Arts Council operates at arm’s length, as a development body specifically for the arts. The Creative Ireland Programme is a five year programme established in 2007 to connect “people, creativity and wellbeing” with collaborations between” central and local government, between culture and industry, between artists and policy makers – to facilitate an ecosystem of creativity”.
Public spend on culture: In 2018, the Irish government spent 0.5% of GDP on recreation, culture and religion (Eurostat, COFOG).
Cultural Employment: According to the Eurostat data, in 2018 there were 830.7 thousand people employed as cultural workers in Italy representing 3.6% of the total employed population aged from 15 to 65+. Further demographic and employment characteristic data can be found in the Eurostat database.
National mapping of the CCW: In Italy, the institutional bodies providing official data on the cultural and creative workforce are MIBACT (Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Tourism) and ISTAT (National Institute of Statistics). The occupational overview in the CCIs sector is also provided by private and public-private organisations dealing with creative economies and their implications in the world of work. ISTAT is the Italian public research body that deals with general population censuses, services and industry, general economic surveys at national level, which provide data for in-depth analyses. The main source in the CCIs sector using ISTAT data is the report that the Symbola Foundation and Unioncamere jointly produce on a yearly basis.
Italy Cultural Policy: Italian Cultural Policy is divided across the national, regional, province and municipality level. At the national level, responsibility is primarily managed by the MiBACT, assisted by four central, widely representative advisory bodies: the High Council for Heritage and Landscape, the “Consulta” for the Performing Arts, the Permanent Committee for Copyright, and the Permanent Committee for the Promotion of Tourism. At the regional level, the twenty Italian Regions all have legislative powers and ad hoc administrative structures in the cultural sector (regional departments for culture). There is little involvement with cultural/creative policy at the provincial level, however at the municipality level, there is significant funding and support for local cultural activities.
Public spend on culture (COFOG): In 2018, the Italian government spent 0.8% of GDP on recreation, culture and religion (Eurostat, COFOG).
Cultural Employment: According to the Eurostat database, in 2018 there were 32.4 thousand people employed as cultural workers in Latvia.
National mapping of the CCW: Latvia applies the ESS-net 2012 classification codes to measure creative employment following the NACE Rev.2 and ISEC framework. Creative work and employment is managed by the Ministry of Culture, but the data to which they have access is collated from the records of the internal revenue service. Data on cultural employment is available through the Central Statistical Bureau of Latvia, Centrālā statistikas pārvalde, https://www.csb.gov.lv/lv/sakums.
Adapting the internal revenue service data into the ESS-net model for analysis of creative / cultural employment means that certain occupations are absent from the monitoring for example those that are not included in the ESS-net format. The Latvian model also excludes self-employed workers from their statistics.
Latvian Cultural Policy: State cultural/ creative policy in Latvia is managed by the Ministry of Culture (https://www.km.gov.lv/en) who also manage social integration policy and cultural education including vocational education (music and art schools) and higher education in the field of art, culture and music. Other subordinate institutions linked to cultural policy include the Latvian National Centre for Culture – responsible for cultural and creative industries education, the National Film Centre of Latvia, the Centre for Culture Information Systems (links to all here: https://www.km.gov.lv/en/culture/creative-industries/institutions-and-partners). The Latvian Investment and Development Agency (LIAA) provides investment support for entrepreneurs (http://www.liaa.gov.lv/en).
Public spend on culture (COFOG): In 2018, the Latvian government spent 1.6% of GDP on recreation, culture and religion (Eurostat, COFOG).
Cultural Employment: According to the Eurostat data, in 2018 there were 55.5 thousand people employed as cultural workers in Lithuania representing 4% of the total employed population.
National mapping of the CCW: Monitoring of the CCW in Lithuania is managed by the Department of Statistics for the Ministry of Culture. There are two government reports that provide information on cultural/creative occupations and/or industries, one in 2014 and another in 2016. These reports appear to be the only government led documentation on creative and cultural activity.
Lithuanian Cultural Policy: The Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Lithuania has overall responsibility for cultural and creative activities including implementing cultural policy, promoting diversity, allocate grants and other funds. The Ministry of Culture has 18 advisory councils that provide advice and consult on current issues of interests in different fields related to both creative and cultural activity all of which are listed in the DISCE creative and cultural workers database. The Ministry of Culture also has four administrative institutions: Lithuanian Culture Institute, Secretariat of the Lithuanian National Commission for UNESCO, Office of the Chief Archivist of Lithuania, State Inspectorate on Language, Department of Cultural Heritage. Cultural policy implementation bodies under the Ministry of Culture are the Lithuanian Council for Culture (LCC) and the Lithuanian Film Centre. The LCC allocates state funding for grants and other financial support to culture creators and artists; organise culture and art research, monitor culture and art projects being carried out; within its remit, prepare and submit conclusions concerning the awarding of prizes established by the Ministry of Culture.
Public spend on culture: In 2018, the Lithuanian government spent 1.1% of its GDP on recreation, culture and religion (Eurostat, COFOG).
Cultural Employment: According to the Eurostat data, in 2018 there were 14.9 thousand people employed as cultural workers in Luxembourg representing 5.3% of the total employed population.
National mapping of the CCW: Luxembourg’s national-statistical agency undertaking official research on the creative/cultural work in Luxembourg is called STATEC. Also known as the National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies of The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (original: ‘Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques due Grand-Duché de Luxembourg), STATEC is an administration placed under the authority of the Ministry of Economy but, according to it’s website, independent. STATEC defines ‘cultural employment’ all people who ‘either have a cultural occupation or work in a cultural domain’ . They sub-divide cultural employment across three forms; (1) population in employment that works in a cultural domain and has a cultural occupation, e.g. a dancer in a ballet company or a journalist in the press; (2) population in employment that has a cultural occupation outside the cultural domains, e.g. a designer in the industry; (3) population in employment that works in a cultural domain but without a cultural occupation, e.g. an accountant working in a publishing house. Classification of cultural professions adopts the ISCO-08 classification system adopted by the European Union.
Luxembourg Cultural Policy: Luxembourg’s cultural policy is managed by the Ministry of Culture. The Ministry is responsible for cultural heritage as well as funding the creative of artistic works and the development of artistic practice.
Public spend on culture: In 2018, the French government spent 1.3% of GDP on recreation, culture and religion (Eurostat, COFOG).
Cultural Employment: According to the Eurostat data, in 2018 there were 12.1 thousand people employed as cultural workers in Malta representing 5.2% of the total employed population.
National mapping of the CCW: Information including employment monitoring in Malta is published by the National Statistics Office. There’s in no direct reference to cultural and creative occupations other than the application of ‘related to culture’. Cultural statistics data is collected in collaboration with the Creative Economy Working Group, within the Ministry for Finance to make the statistics relevant and comprehensive for national needs. The Creative Economy Working Group has produced a length report titled ‘Creative Works’ which includes further information on creative and cultural monitoring and activity in Malta.
Maltese Cultural Policy: Malta has two main national organisations that oversee cultural and creative activities, and implement cultural policy, promote diversity, allocate grants and other funds (among other things). The Ministry of National Heritage, Arts and Local Government which has a specific cultural directorate. The Arts Council Malta (ACM) which is support via state funding offers a variety of reports, case studies and other information related to the cultural sector.
Public spend on culture: In 2018, the Maltese government spent 1% of its GDP on recreation, culture and religion (Eurostat, COFOG).
Cultural Employment: According to the Eurostat database, in 2018 there were 408.4 thousand people employed as cultural workers in The Netherlands, representing 4.6% of the total employed population aged from 15 to 65+. Further demographic and employment characteristic data can be found in the Eurostat database.
National mapping of the CCW: The Dutch government applies the term ‘cultural and creative sector’ in their official categorisation of employment within their creative economy. Employment data is managed by Statistics Netherlands (CBS) . The Dutch Standard Industrial Classification of creative/cultural industries is based on the ESS-net framework deployed by Eurostat, however, there are alternative coding frameworks for occupational data across different statistical agencies. This is linked to the arms-length neutrality of State Cultural policy in The Netherlands (see below). The Social and Cultural Planning Bureau (SCP) is an arms-length public statistics organisation, and its equivalent, Statistics Netherlands (CPB), provides alternative methodologies for researching similar questions. Similarly, the Social-Economic Council (SER) and Culture Council (RvC) are two independent advisory organs, and while they are sometimes commissioned to do research for government purposes, they also publish policy research at their own initiative. Compared to other European countries, data about the state of the cultural and creative sector or labour market are relatively limited in the Netherlands. The government does not publish an annual roundup of numbers; instead stats are occasionally released as part of commissioned surveys and reports. As a result, the years that the data represents are non-standardised and might therefore present difficulties for comparative analysis.
Netherlands Cultural Policy: Cultural Policy in the Netherlands is managed by the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science () and following the Cultural Policy Act (Wet op het specifiek cultuurbeleid, 1993), policy is reviewed every four years. According to the information available on the Compendium website, the basic principle of Dutch government policy is to remain neutral in assessing arts issues and decisions around arts spending and support are left to various committees. The Council for Culture [Raad voor Cultuur] is a separate body that advises the government on the principles and implementation of policy plans, both solicited and unsolicited. Advisory bodies also exist at municipal and provincial level.
Public spend on culture (COFOG): In 2018, the Dutch government spent 1.2% of GDP on recreation, culture and religion (Eurostat, COFOG).
Cultural Employment: According to the Eurostat data, in 2018 there were 586 thousand people employed as cultural workers in Poland representing 3.6% of the total employed population.
National mapping of the CCW: National statistics on cultural/creative activity in Poland are managed by Statistics Poland. In 2018, they published a detailed report titled; ‘Cultural and creative industries in 2014-2016’ which provides their definitions, concepts and models of the categorisation of cultural and creative industries including information on employment (Executive Summary in English). The report appears to show Poland’s engagement with the ESSnet-2012 framework for the classification of cultural industrial and occupational activity. The latest update on the cultural and creative industries can be accessed here.
Polish Cultural Policy: The Ministry of Culture and National Heritage of Poland is responsible for Polish national cultural policy, however cultural policy is also divided across the local government administration and there is a growing number of non-governmental organisations having an impact as the structure of cultural activity in Poland.
Public spend on culture (COFOG): In 2018, the Polish government spent 1.3% of its GDP on recreation, culture and religion (Eurostat, COFOG).
Cultural Employment: According to the Eurostat data, in 2018 there were 160.600 people employed as cultural workers in Portugal, representing 3.3% of the total employed population.
National mapping of the CCW: The definition of Creative and Cultural Industries in Portugal (Industrias Culturais e Criativas ICC), is vast and diverse and encompasses a set of activities that have in common the use of creativity, cultural knowledge and intellectual property as resources to produce goods and services. A full report of current situation and data on CCIs is presented in Indústrias Culturais e Criativas Sinopse 2018, by the Direção-Geral das Atividades Económicas (the Directorate-General for Economic Activities, DGAE) although it is more an industry based report than a report on work and workforce. Statistics Portugal has responsibility to the management of national statistics in Portugal. In 2018, based on the Labour Force Survey the employed population in cultural and creative sector was estimated in 131.4 thousand individuals (117.1 thousand in the previous year). From total, 57.8% were men, 64.5% were over 35 years old, and 57.8% had completed a tertiary level of education (compared with 26.8% of the entire population). As for the creative and cultural business landscape, the institute refers to data for 2017, showing that there were 61,916 companies, i.e. 5.7 percent more than in 2016.
Portuguese Cultural Policy: Portugal’s Ministry of Culture (Ministerio da Cultura) is responsible for defining and implementing cultural policy in Portugal. Under the Ministry there are five Regional Culture Directorates (North, Centre, Lisbon and Tagus Valley, Alentejo and Algarve) whose aim is to distribute the Ministry’s responsibilities more widely.
Public spend on culture: In 2018, the Portuguese government spent 0.8% of GDP on recreation, culture and religion (Eurostat, COFOG).
Cultural Employment: According to the Eurostat data, in 2018 there were 141,000 people employed as cultural workers in Romania, representing 1.6% of the total employed population.
National mapping of the CCW: There is no specific mean of measurement for creative occupations in Romania. Classification of work in Romania is done by the Ministry of Labour and Social Justice. The occupations (registered in the Classification of occupations in Romania – COR) are grouped into 9 major groups, according to ISCO-08 Index of Occupational Titles. The National Institute for Cultural Research and Training (INCFC) highlighted in a study in 2016 a big issue for the CCIs in Romania regarding the COR classification: the fact that new occupations are not included in the COR. NICRT has provided a list of creative and cultural occupations according to COR in a White Paper the Economic Potential of the Cultural and Creative Sectors in Romania (2016). The 2016 White Paper identifies 11 sector as part of the creative industries: Libraries and archives; Cultural Heritage; Art crafts; Performing Arts; Architecture; Book and Press; Visual Arts; Audio-visual and multimedia; Advertising; IT, Software and electronic games; Research – development. Regional studies about cultural and creative sectors, such as Cultural and Creative Strategy of Bucharest 2015-2025 concentrate on the capital city. Another list of the creative professions according to COR can be found online, provided by an ONG, part of the Cultura Alternativă project. Cultura Alternativă project (done by an NGO, founded through European Union funds): through a survey (answered by specialists working in the creative and cultural industries; data collection was in 2018), they gathered information about income, opinions, needs and the status of the artists. The aim of this study is to inform public cultural policies that would improve the status of the artist in Romania.
Romania Cultural Policy: Romania Cultural Policy is mainly addressed by the Ministry of Culture and National Identity however its structure is also decentralised across 41 counties of Romania, as well as in Bucharest. The official body that studies the field of culture is INCFC (National Institute for Culture Research and Training), subordinated to the Ministry of Culture and National Identity, is the only national institute that has such goals as studying, researching and providing statistical data for the field of culture, as well as the ongoing training of those who choose a career in the occupational sector of culture
Public spend on culture: In 2018, the Romanian government spent 1% of GDP on recreation, culture and religion (Eurostat, COFOG).
Cultural Employment: According to the Eurostat data, in 2018 there were 46.4 thousand people employed as cultural workers in Slovenia representing 4.7% of the total employed population.
National mapping of the CCW: Responsibility for data related to the creative/cultural industries in Slovenia is managed by the Statistical Office of The Republic of Slovenia. They apply the Standard Classification of Occupation 2008 (SKP-08) based on the International Standard Classification of Occupational 2008 (ISCO-08) model for cultural occupations. A publication titled ‘Cultural activities on the stage’ (2018) which looked at the total number of stages performances across the performing arts (including festivals) from 2016-2018 included employment information relating to employees and external associates. This included data on the number of full and part time employees, employees under the age of 35, volunteers, sole proprietors, agency workers, students, those under a work contract and those under a contract for a copyrighted work.
Slovenian cultural policy: The Slovenian Ministry of Culture is responsible for cultural policy formulation and implementation alongside the provision of cultural services via national cultural institutions founded by the state and interventions to finance larger cultural institutions founded by the municipalities. There are also two public agencies and one public fund: the Slovenian Film Centre, the Public Fund of the Republic of Slovenia for Cultural Activities (dealing with amateur culture) and the Slovenian Book Agency, which function as arm’s length bodies distributing public funds. There is also a National Council for Culture and the Cultural Chamber of Slovenia, set up to provide an opportunity for public involvement in policy processes.
Public spend on culture: In 2018, the Slovenian government spent 1.4% of its GDP on recreation, culture and religion (Eurostat, COFOG).
Cultural Employment: According to the Eurostat data, in 2018 there were 71,600 people employed as cultural workers in Slovakia, representing 2.8% of the total employed population.
National mapping of the CCW: There is no official definition of the cultural or creative industries in Slovakia, and they do not regularly monitor the workforce. There is some research into the infrastructure of culture and the cultural industries undertaken by the Cultural Observatorium, part of the National Centre of Public Education and Culture Národné osvetové centrum in Bratislava. Partial information on the activities of the individual areas of the culture industries (the publishing of non-periodic publications and print periodicals, television and radio broadcasting, production of audio / visual works) is contained in the statistical findings carried out by the Ministry of Culture however, they lack the relevant data on the economic efficiency of the culture industries in Slovakia and on its infrastructure.
There is one policy document linked to the current policy framework for classifying cultural activity in Solvakia which was approved in 2004, the National Culture Policy Stratégia štátnej kultúrnej politiky, which appears to favour the stimulation of privately funded cultural development.
Slovakian Cultural Policy: Cultural Policy in Slovakia is defined within the Programme Declaration of the Government of the Slovak Republic (Programové vyhlásenie Vlády Slovenskej republiky, PVV), in which the Slovakian Government bind themselves to the support for culture via public funds as a right, alongside the reassurance that government cannot have a direct politically motivated ideological impact on culture. The support of culture is seen as a important factor of strengthening Slovakian identity. Slovakia appears to acknowledge the complexity of culture as having an ethical, sociological and economic dimension (see document). Over the past few years there has been a gradual increase of state subsidies for culture, to bring Slovakia in line with other EU member states For more information, see the Compendium cultural policies and trends.
Public spend on culture: In 2018, the Slovakian government spent 1.1% of GDP on recreation, culture and religion (Eurostat, COFOG).
Cultural Employment: According to the Eurostat data, in 2018 there were 690.700 people employed as cultural workers in Italy representing 3.6% of the total employed population.
National mapping of the CCW: In 2019, Spanish Ministry of Culture and Sport, together with the country’s National Statistics Planning (INE), published the SACS (Satellite Account on Culture in Spain). The report provides a detailed list of activities classified as part of the cultural and creative industries.. In the official report, there are seven main sectors identified as integral parts of the cultural industries: Heritage; Archives and Libraries; Books and Press; Visual Arts; Performing Arts; Audiovisual and Multimedia; Interdisciplinary. The average contribution of cultural GVA to the Spanish economy as a whole during the 2010-2017 period was 2.6%. Taking into account the set of activities related to intellectual property, this figure rises to 3.4%. Furthermore, the Yearbook Of Cultural Statistics 2018 (published by the Spanish Ministry of Culture and Sport) also include some data on cultural employment: it is also characterized by a higher than average educational background, showing greater rates of higher education than those observed overall at a national level, 67.1% compared to 42.5%. It also shows that 68.3% of cultural employment is salaried, lower than that observed in the total, 83.5%, and shows full-time and part-time employment rates of 87.1% and 12.9% respectively. Some other cultural data and trends are also mapped by the Observatorio de la Cultura
Spanish Cultural Policy: As reported by Compendium of Cultural Policies & Trends cultural policy in Spain is mainly managed by the Ministry of Culture and Sport (reformed in 2018) which has 3 main departments: for Books and Promotion of Reading; for Fine Arts and for Cultural Industries and Cooperation. Many Spanish cultural bodies are managed as autonomous organisms with independent legal status as for example the Prado Museum, the National Library of Spain, and the Film and Audiovisual Arts Institute.
Public spend on culture: In 2018, the Spanish government spents 1.1% of GDP on recreation, culture and religion (Eurostat, COFOG).
Cultural Employment: According to the Eurostat data, in 2018 there were 234.9 thousand people employed as cultural workers in Sweden, representing 4.6% of the total population.
National mapping of the CCW: Data on cultural employment within Sweden is managed by Statistics Sweden. Statistics Sweden don’t have ready-made definition of the cultural and/or creative workforce, instead Sweden builds on both the occupational and industrial definitions outlined in the EU’s ESS-net 2012 framework with the inclusion of the fashion industry and four additional SNI codes . The Swedish Standard Industrial Classification (SNI) is a statistical standard that makes it possible to compare and analyse data, both nationally and internationally and over time. SNI codes are based on the categorization outlined by the European Commission’s NACE Rev.2 list. Occupations in Sweden are reported according to the Swedish Standard Classification of Occupations (SSYK 2012). The base for SSYK 2012 is the international classification (ISCO-08). Occupations related to the cultural and creative industries in Sweden lists the SNI codes that constitute the national statistical definition of cultural and creative industries, with associated industry group and industry category.
Further information on the classification framework for creative and cultural employment in Sweden can be accessed through the following report: Kreametern – metodrapport Metod och källor till svensk statistik för kulturella och kreativa näringa (translation: Method and Sources for Swedish statistics for cultural and creative industries).
Swedish Cultural Policy: Cultural policy in Sweden is highly centralised, with a number of cultural or creative government agencies financially dependent on the Ministry of Culture. Major institutions include the Swedish Arts Council, the Swedish National Heritage Board and the Swedish Film Institute.
Public spend on Culture: In 2018, Sweden spent 1.3% of its GDP on Recreation, culture and religion (Eurostat, COFOG).
Cultural Employment: According to the Eurostat data, in 2018 there were 1471.2 thousand people employed as cultural workers in the UK, representing 4.5% of the total employed population.
National mapping of the CCW: The British government has a clearly defined concept of measuring the creative and cultural industry and its workforce following a mapping document undertaken by the ministerial Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sports (DCMS) in 1998. The classification framework for creative/cultural industrial and occupation activity has undergone significant reform since 1998. The latest methodological definition of classification and monitoring of the creative economy, a term used by the DCMS to refer to industrial and occupational activity across all sectors linked to creative/cultural activity including the digital, telecoms, tourism, sports and gambling sectors can be accessed here.
UK Cultural Policy: The UK is a devolved nation and although the UK Parliament and Government have policy responsibility for all cultural issues in England and some issues, such as broadcasting, across the whole of the United Kingdom, cultural/creative policy in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland are the responsibility of devolved administrations: the Scottish Parliament and Executive, the National Assembly for Wales, and the Northern Ireland Assembly and Executive respectively. Where the Scottish Parliament and the Northern Ireland Assembly are able to make primary legislation, the National Assembly for Wales is only able to make secondary legislation; responsibility for primary legislation for Wales remains with the UK Parliament and Government. However, statistical monitoring of creative and cultural employment across the UK is managed and disseminated by the Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS).
Public spend on culture (COFOG): In 2018, the British government spent 0.6% of GDP on recreation, culture and religion (Eurostat: COFOG).